Open fetal surgery This is similar surgery, in many respects to a normal cesarean section which is performed under general anesthesia, except that the fetus remains dependent on the placenta and it is returned to the uterus. A hysterotomy cut is performed on the pregnant woman, and once the uterus is open and the fetus is exposed, the fetal surgery begins. After completing this surgery, the fetus will be put back inside the uterus and the uterus and abdominal wall is closed up. Before the last stitch is made in the uterine wall, the amniotic fluid is replaced. The mother remains in the hospital for 3–7 days for monitoring. Then now the babies who have been operated on in this manner are born pre-term. Open fetal surgery has proven that it is reasonably safe for the mother. For the fetus, safety and effectiveness are variable, and it will depend on the specific procedure, the reasons for the procedure, and the gestational age and condition of the fetus.