Oophorectomy Oophorectomy is the surgical process to remove one or both of ovaries, which is the part of a woman's reproductive system which stores and releases eggs for fertilization and produces female sex hormones. Oophorectomy is done alone or also done with part of a hysterectomy. Oophorectomy surgery is often needed when pelvic disease, called ovarian cancer, is present. And for sometimes it is recommended when the body hormones are produced by the ovaries which will make a disease such as breast cancer or the severe endometriosis worse. In some of the cases ovaries are removed to reduce the possibility of developing a future disease, such as ovarian cancer. This is also called as prophylactic oophorectomy. What are the reasons to have an oophorectomy surgery? Most hysterectomies do not include oophorectomy. Oophorectomy surgery is done for conditions and diseases such as: Heredity (inherited) diseases. Women who have certain abnormal genes have an increased risk for developing ovarian cancer before age 70. Breast cancer. Hormones produced by the ovaries increase the risk of breast cancer. Oophorectomy may reduce the risk of breast cancer.